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Conflict of civilizations between liberalism and Islam or “fundamentalism of freedom of expression”? Salman Rushdie and his detractors by means of the eyes of Western intellectuals | Tradition


The stabbing incident of British-American author and novelist Salman Rushdie sparked a flurry of reactions, after which among the massive names in American literature, similar to Paul Auster and Man Thales, gathered on the steps from the New York Public Library within the Manhattan district, to arrange a studying of extracts from the works of Rushdie, in assist of the Indian author significantly injured two weeks in the past in a stabbing assault.

Rushdie, the creator of the novel ‘The Satanic Verses', was about to provide a lecture on August 12 in upstate New York when a person burst into the theater and stabbed him repeatedly to the neck and stomach. , and the incident drew widespread condemnation around the globe.

On February 14, 1989 – a date which Rushdie sarcastically described as “the unfunny Valentine's Day” – Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa to shed Rushdie's blood that made headlines around the globe, and likewise been pressured into hiding for a lot of the Nineties.

Following the latest incident, French thinker Bernard-Henri Lévy mentioned the Nobel Prize in Literature – which will likely be awarded subsequent October – ought to go to author Salman Rushdie, taken to hospital in essential situation after been stabbed in the USA.

Talking of Rushdie, Levy wrote – in an article revealed by the newspaper “Le Journal du Dimanche”, “I can not think about some other author who has the audacity, at this second, who deserves it greater than him. The marketing campaign begins now.”

Freedom of expression in a liberal world

and in article On the “Dialog” web site, educational Daniel O'Gorman wrote that the Rushdie incident had been broadly and unconditionally condemned, however some feedback about it resorted to framing the incident in a colloquial means within the dualism of freedom of expression versus fundamentalism.

O'Gorman, a researcher in English literature at Oxford Brookes College, mentioned the assault was undoubtedly an “assault on free speech” and added: “Nevertheless, it warns us Research trendy On Islamophobia, the unbridled want to give attention to Islamic extremism is giving solution to a reductionist and simplified conception of the world, through which Western-style liberalism is opposed to what's known as “non secular barbarism”, particularly Islamic. Teachers additional warn that this type of worldview can result in a rise in Discrimination in opposition to Muslims“.

The author continues: ‘Though this incident is horrific, misrepresentation in regards to the conflict of civilizations needs to be averted, and warning must also be exercised earlier than adopting this type of ‘free speech fundamentalism“Exploited by far-right French personalities like Eric Zemmour and Marine Le Pen, within the aftermath of the Charlie Hebdo assaults in 2015, “as he put it.

The time period “free speech fundamentalism” is used to discuss with absolutely the dedication to free speech solely with out listening to different ideas and values, similar to fact-checking, figuring out sources and the excellence between details and lies.

The author added: “Media research scholar Gavan Tetley has argued, this The invocation of “free speech” in latest liberal discourse has typically strengthened racism.”

He wrote that the very excessive emphasis on the difficulty of “Muslim integration” is offered as tantamount to “taking a stand in opposition to the Catholic Church within the nineteenth century, or a stand in opposition to Stalinist totalitarianism”. presents Darsaw writings RushdieSince A protracted intervalThe necessity to assist freedom of expression with out decreasing it to a distorted/caricatured picture.

Amongst Darcy Rushdie is Pankaj Mishra, creator of “The Mild Zealots.. Liberals, Race and Empire”, of which she considers the Indian British author as one in every of her examples and criticizes his disregard for the nuances revealed by political details and historic and his imaginative and prescient of “the irrationality of Islam”.

Mishra evaluation – en extract From his e-book revealed by the American Huff Put up – Rushdie's insistence on “French-style secularization, nonetheless tough to implement even in America and far of Christian Europe”, and refers to his insistence to compel Muslims to the “secular ideas of the trendy world”, whereas he distrusted the youth of the Arab world. Those that embraced precisely these ideas in 2011 throughout the Arab Spring occasions in Egypt and Tunisia, and by “elected Islamist events within the largest nation, Indonesia, oversaw the transition from army authoritarianism to democracy electoral”, in accordance with the creator.

The e-book “The Mild Zealots.. Liberals, Race and Empire” by Pankaj Mishra (Al Jazeera)

The creator believes that Rushdie's contradictions and descriptions of “irrational lots” can't clarify the nice complexities of the up to date world, however belong to a less complicated mental age, as she places it, the place “non-Western and politically unimportant might be judged by their success or failure in following the nice sample. for the secular and humanist West.

“Writing literary fiction can appear to be sufficient to really feel such as you're on the fitting aspect of a world ethical and political battle,” she provides, quoting British critic and novelist Tim Parks' evaluation of Rushdie's The Land Beneath Her Ft.

“Cultural betrayal”

In his e-book “Cultural Forces in International Politics”, the late Kenyan thinker Ali Al-Amin Mazrouei denounced what he known as “cultural betrayal and censorship between two worlds”, through which he expressed his break up between his identification Islam and its perception in a society.

Whereas – the director of the Heart for African American Research on the College of Michigan – rejected all types of capital punishment within the trendy period and strongly reserved the difficulty of censorship and prevention, he noticed that the West didn't perceive the idea of betrayal of somebody from the “nation” because the Muslims say, whereas they simply perceive the betrayal of the state and legislate legal guidelines which can be punished.

The scholar – Binghamton College in New York – thought-about the Quran itself to be a murals and essentially the most broadly learn e-book in its authentic language within the historical past of mankind (that is what what non-Muslims normally say), however slightly relates extra to its trace that the Quran was created by Devil, and likewise to its development by mocking its rulings and making issues up that aren't there.

Mazrouei says the Salman Rushdie controversy includes one other cross-cultural concern: defamation. Within the West, libel regulation tends to give attention to the person, not a sect or group of individuals, however Western writers can't stroll in favor of a author who portrays the Virgin Mary as a “prostitute” or contemplate the Supper as a “collective intercourse get together”, This might be the actual equal of blaspheming the narration of the Satanic Verses and fascinating within the honor of the wives of the Prophet (might God bless him and grant him the peace).

The creator says there's a Western ambivalence within the remedy of speech rights; He was personally banned and censored in the USA. Within the third episode titled ‘New Gods' of the tv sequence – which was produced by the late BBC scholar, ‘BBC' titled ‘Africans: A Triple Legacy' – a part of his speech was deleted within the model broadcast in the USA, whereas the identical half was broadcast in different European international locations.

The late Kenyan thinker Ali Al-Amin Mazrouei (1933-2014) labored in US universities and analysis facilities (Getty Pictures)

Author discusses literature's accountability for inflicting chaos and says it precipitated violence and unrest within the subcontinent through which Rushdie was born, the place 20 individuals died following violent protests which the novelist didn't care, stating that Indian intellectuals warned Rushdie and the writer – who printed his novel – of the character of his explosive motion, Penguin Home councilor Kushwant Singh warned that the e-book may result in unrest in India, which is thought for quite a few riots with non secular and nationalist backgrounds.

The creator says the Indian authorities's ban on the e-book has discovered assist from many Indian intellectuals – together with Hindus, Sikhs, Christians and Muslims. Quite the opposite, we are attempting – as onerous as we are able to – to construct a free India through which we are able to all breathe freely, however to do that we should protect the India that exists.”

Mazrouei believes that the controversy of the novel “The Satanic Verses” will not be a query of “artwork for artwork's sake”, however its creator has positioned the anger of Muslims at their insult under that of tickling readers Westerners, and no tradition might be reformed by insulting it, and as Westerners wrestle to soak up the anger of Muslim protesters Based on the novel, Muslims wrestle to know what they see as “betrayal tradition” of the author in change for a big sum of cash.

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